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Accord de Paris.jpg

It all started with the signing of the "United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change" adopted at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 by the then European Union and 154 other states. This is the first attempt, within the framework of the United Nations, to clearly define climate change, to measure its challenges and to attempt to remedy it. This convention is unfortunately not binding and all the consecutive annual meetings (from COP1 to COP25) do not seem to have germinated in a significant way.


Observers hoped that the Paris Agreement signed at COP 21 on December 12, 2015 (entered into force on November 4, 2016) by 195 states. would give better results since it is legally binding.


Unfortunately, Donald Trump, a great transhumanist before the eternal, withdrew the United States from the Agreement. on November 4, 2020, the day after his inauguration as President of the United States, His decision struck the majority of signatory states and even some American states. The governors of California, New York and Washington united to create a "Climate Alliance".


The 19.02.2021Joe Biden reinstated the second world polluter in the Paris Agreement, which is likely to accelerate the fight against climate change.


What does the Paris Agreement provide  


Mitigate climate change: reduce polluting emissions


  1. In the long term, to contain global warming below 2% of pre-industrial levels.

  2. continue efforts to limit the rise in temperatures to 1.5%, which would make it possible to continue efforts to limit the rise in temperatures to 1.5 ° C, which would greatly reduce the risks and consequences of climate change;

  3. aim for a peak in global emissions as soon as possible, recognizing that this trend will be slower in developing countries;

  4. then proceed rapidly to reductions, based on the best available scientific data, so as to achieve a balance between emissions and removals in the second half of the century.

Countries presented comprehensive national climate action plans (Nationally Determined Contributions, NDCs). These are not yet sufficient to meet the temperature targets, but the agreement paves the way to achieve them.


Countries have agreed

  1. to meet every 5 years to assess collective progress towards the achievement of long-term goals and to inform parties of the update and strengthening of their nationally determined contributions;

  2. to inform each other and inform the public of the way in which they are implementing climate actions;

  3. monitor progress towards commitments made under the agreement through a strong system of transparency and accountability.



The countries have agreed:

  1. to strengthen their capacity to cope with the consequences of climate change;

  2. provide continued and enhanced international support to adaptation efforts in developing countries.

Loss and damage


The agreement:

  1. recognizes the importance of preventing, limiting and addressing loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change;

  2. recognizes the need to cooperate and strengthen understanding, action and support in different areas, such as early warning systems, emergency preparedness and climate risk insurance arrangements.

Role of cities, regions and local authorities


The agreement recognizes the role of non-state actors in addressing climate change, including cities, local authorities, civil society and the private sector. 

These are invited:

  1. to increase their efforts and support actions aimed at reducing emissions;

  2. build resilience and reduce vulnerability to the consequences of climate change;

  3. to support and promote regional and international cooperation.



  1. The EU and other developed countries will continue to support initiatives implemented in developing countries to reduce emissions and build resilience to the consequences of climate change.

  2. Other countries are encouraged to provide or continue to provide this type of support on a voluntary basis.

  3. The developed countries intend to pursue their collective objective of mobilizing 100 billion dollars per year until 2020, then until 2025. A new, more ambitious objective will be set after this period.

Katowice Rules


Katowice's climate package


adopted at the United Nations climate conference (COP24) in December 2018, it contains common and detailed rules, procedures and guidelines that give concrete form to the Paris Agreement.

It covers all critical areas, including transparency, finance, mitigation and adaptation, and provides flexibility to parties that need it given their capacities, while allowing them to implement their commitments. and report on it in a transparent, comprehensive, comparable and consistent manner. 

It will also allow the parties to gradually strengthen their contributions to the fight against climate change, in order to achieve the long-term objectives of the agreement.


Global Climate Action Plan


Outside of formal intergovernmental negotiations, countries, cities and regions, businesses and members of civil society around the world are taking action to accelerate climate cooperation in support of the Paris Agreement, as part of the global climate action program .


Role of the EU


The EU plays a leading role in international action to combat climate change. It made a decisive contribution to the negotiation of the Paris Agreement and continues to lead the way globally.

The EU's Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) under the Paris Agreement is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by at least 40% by 2030 compared to 1990, in the broader framework for action on climate and energy by 2030 . At the end of 2018, all essential EU legislative acts to implement this objective.

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